Cooperativity in Scapharca dimeric hemoglobin: simulation of binding intermediates and elucidation of the role of interfacial water.

TitleCooperativity in Scapharca dimeric hemoglobin: simulation of binding intermediates and elucidation of the role of interfacial water.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2003
AuthorsZhou, Y, Zhou H, Karplus M
JournalJournal of molecular biology
Volume326
Pagination593-606
Date Published2003 Feb 14
Abstract

Cooperative binding of ligands to proteins can serve to increase their efficiency and to regulate their activity. Thus, understanding of the mechanism of cooperativity is one of the central concerns of molecular biology. For the tetrameric human hemoglobin (HbA), the cooperative mechanism involves a reasonably well understood combination of tertiary and quaternary changes that occur during the binding process. The dimeric hemoglobin of Scapharca (HbI), which is composed of subunits with the same fold as in HbA, is also highly cooperative but the structural changes on ligand binding are small. A re-orientation of Phe97 in the binding pocket and changes in the number of interfacial water molecules have been implicated in the cooperative mechanism. To explore the role of these factors, we have investigated models of partially liganded intermediate states of HbI with molecular dynamics simulation methods. Since, unlike HbA, no structures for intermediates are available, they were constructed by combining subunits from the unliganded and liganded dimers. Two structurally distinct intermediates were examined, and it was shown that the transition between the two intermediates is directly coupled to the number of interfacial water molecules. Further, it was found that there is a well-defined water channel that connects the interface between the subunits to bulk water. The bottleneck (gate) of the channel, which can be open or closed, is made of hydrophilic residues. The implication of the present results for the cooperative mechanism of HbI is discussed.

Pub Med Link

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12559925?dopt=Abstract

Alternate JournalJ. Mol. Biol.
Citekey12559925