X-ray crystal structure of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase: μ-sulfido,μ-oxo double bridge between molybdenum and arsenic in the active site.

TitleX-ray crystal structure of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase: μ-sulfido,μ-oxo double bridge between molybdenum and arsenic in the active site.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsCao, H, Hall J, Hille R
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume133
Pagination12414-7
Date Published2011 Aug 17
Abstract

Xanthine oxidoreductase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation reaction of sp(2)-hybridized carbon centers of a variety of substrates, including purines, aldehydes, and other heterocyclic compounds. The complex of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase has been characterized previously by UV-vis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and the catalytically essential sulfido ligand of the square-pyrimidal molybdenum center has been suggested to be involved in arsenite binding through either a μ-sulfido,μ-oxo double bridge or a single μ-sulfido bridge. However, this is contrary to the crystallographically observed single μ-oxo bridge between molybdenum and arsenic in the desulfo form of aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas (an enzyme closely related to xanthine oxidase), whose molybdenum center has an oxo ligand replacing the catalytically essential sulfur, as seen in the functional form of xanthine oxidase. Here we use X-ray crystallography to characterize the molybdenum center of arsenite-inhibited xanthine oxidase and solve the structures of the oxidized and reduced inhibition complexes at 1.82 and 2.11 Å resolution, respectively. We observe μ-sulfido,μ-oxo double bridges between molybdenum and arsenic in the active sites of both complexes. Arsenic is four-coordinate with a distorted trigonal-pyramidal geometry in the oxidized complex and three-coordinate with a distorted trigonal-planar geometry in the reduced complex. The doubly bridged binding mode is in agreement with previous XAS data indicating that the catalytically essential sulfur is also essential for the high affinity of reduced xanthine oxidoreductase for arsenite.

10.1021/ja2050265
Pub Med Link

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21761899?dopt=Abstract

Alternate JournalJ. Am. Chem. Soc.
Citekey21761899